转贴-在美国买房 踩过很多的坑

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在美国工作有一段时间了,后来经过考虑,在美国买了房:一方面以后想让自己的孩子在美国读书;另一方面,交房屋贷款利息的话,就不用交个人所得税了,反正都要花钱,还不如花在自己的房子上。

回想买房的那段时间,自己也踩了很多坑,趁着有空整理出来,让大家少走一些弯路。

一般来说,美国买房有几个关键的节点:看房选房、写offer、首付贷款、房屋保险、过户交接、政府备案。

一、看房一定要看的两份文件

我去美国买房踩过的坑,希望你们不要再踩了

看房子除了逛逛房子本身,还要看和房子有关的文件。

(1)卖家披露(Seller disclosure)

这是卖家要填写的表格,里面提及房屋的详细状况:房屋年份,是否附赠家电,热水器等电器的使用时长,还有房屋通过检测之后有没有含有有害装修物质,附近环境的污染情况,是否在自然灾害影响区等。

(2)如果房子是公寓房或者商业房等,还有HOA(业主协会章程)

章程很长,几十页到几百页,里面有物业费、是否允许房屋出租、是否允许养宠物等进行详细的规定,了解之后可以避免不必要的麻烦。

看房时有些坑一定要避免:

1.有的卖家或中介会故意把价格写的很低,吸引买家去看房,造成房源特别火爆的状况,让买家之间竞争,哄抬价格。

这种价格叫“钓鱼价”,如果不是特别急着买房子,不要加入这种抢房大战,为了抢房报高价格,不然以后你会后悔。

2.出价方面可以咨询中介,但一般来说,中介会提高价格。

中介为了提高成功率,让自己的佣金多,会提议一个比较高的价格,你可以根据挂牌价和中介价,刷一刷像Zillow、trulia、Realto、RentoMeter等美国房屋估价网站,选一个比较中立的价格。

二、写买家offer

看起来各方面都满意的房子,就可以写买家offer了。买家offer一般包括:报价、付款方式、额外的约束条款、预计交易时间。

1.关于买房时机

冬天(10月以后)的时候,是买房比较好的时机。这时候卖房的人,一般比较急,而且冬天看房的人会少,这时候房价会低一些。等到春天(3月以后),价格又会重新抬高。

2.付款方式

付款方式有两种,贷款和现金。

大部分卖家喜欢现金,这样不麻烦,流程也快。对于比较急用钱的卖家,现金支付还可以商量着降低一部分房价。现金买房的话,一定要在offer里加上全款买房的证明复印件(证明你有能力全款买房)。

3.附加条件

附加条件对买卖双方起到保护作用,这里有两个附加条件一定要提!

(1)房屋检查条件(Home Inspection Contingency):如果你的offer被卖家接受了,你就需要另行支付出价3%左右的定金,放在第三方托管账户escrow account里。如果你临时反悔,定金就会打给卖家,作为“违约金”。

新手买房,很容易忽略房屋隐患、建筑结构等需要翻修的地方。可以花几百刀找专业的验房师验房,给出详细的房屋报告:屋顶、门窗、管道等使用修理情况。

加了这个附加条件,会有两周左右的过渡期,来检查房屋和申请贷款,如果房子或者贷款有问题,并没有满足原来约定好的条件,可以重新商议价格,或者退回定金,结束交易,而不需要交违约金。

(2)估价条件(appraisal Contingency):当银行了解你要买的房子和报价以后,会派第三方的独立房屋估价师上门,评估房屋的价值。如果估价低于你给出的报价,你要自己掏钱补上贷款的差值。

比如你要买一个100万的房子,按80%贷款,想贷款80万。结果估价师觉得房子只值90万,按80%贷款,只能贷款72万,剩下的8万要你自己补全。

如果你提出了这个附加条件,遇到这种估价不统一的情况,就可以和卖家商量着还价,还可以取消交易。

三、关于首付

美国FHA(美国联邦住房管理局提供的贷款方案)的房子首付最低可以达到3.5%,要求有一定的信用分,不过低首付的贷款利息更高,还要花几十到几百刀买贷款保险。

除此之外,一般房子的首付都是20%(针对美国本地人),而外国人在美国买房,首付要40%左右。

首付可以是自己银行账号里的钱,如果是国内转账过去的,最好放几个月再买房,这样美国银行审批的时候不会问你资金来源,减少麻烦。当然,如果你是直接现金支付,不存在这些银行审批的问题。

四、贷款

在美国没有绿卡或者没有公民化,可以申请贷款嘛?如果你在美国工作,有合法的工作签证,且信用良好、工作稳定,是可以申请贷款的,并且和本地人申请情况差不多。

如果你是在OPT工作期间,有稳定的收入,或者是有收入的博士,有工资单和税单,信用分高,也可以申请贷款。

不过一般美国的银行不给批,可以找华人银行,比如华美、国泰、汇丰银行等,不过这种情况首付要求在40%以上,利息相对高,贷款年限也比较短。

如果你是在国内的高收入人群,想在美国买房的话,也可以找华人银行贷款,而且不需要美国的信用分和在美国的收入。只要提供护照,中英文版国内收入证明,银行存款证明等。这种情况也是高首付,利率会高2%左右,审批时间也很长,大概有2个月。

如果你是现金买房,只要有钱,没什么限制。

(1)贷款需要的材料

近两个月的银行账单存款证明(证明有首付能力),最近两个月的工资单(证明有还款能力),护照、签证的复印件或照片、信用记录(这个银行自己查也行)、房屋买卖意向合同、目前居住地证明(比如写着你名字的水电费账单)。

这些材料可以打印,也可以是pdf电子版,然后发给你的贷款专员。

(2)贷款利率

贷款常见的是15年和30年,也有短至1年的。贷款周期越短,利率也越低。

像15年或者30年这种长期贷款,一般是固定利率,每个月按照固定的利率还钱就行。还有一种是浮动利率,刚开始贷款利率会比固定利率低,但是5年或者7年之后,会根据那时的利率做调整,利率可能会提高很多。

如果你只想做短期投资,在5到7年就转手,就可以选浮动利率。如果你想自住或者长期出租,又害怕风险的话,可以选固定利率。

如果你愿意一次性多支付几千刀,还可以买“贷款折扣点数”,得到比较低的“折扣利率”。

(3)贷款信用分

信用分很重要,关系到你的贷款是否会获得批准,信用分越高,一般利率也会越低。

所以,720以上的信用分很重要。平常在美国,水电费、电话费什么的都要及时交,不然会影响你的信用。

五、房屋保险

贷款审批或者过户的过程中,就可以考虑买房屋保险了,主要保障在意外情况下造成的房屋财产损失,每月保险费大概是几百刀。

这个保险建议大家买,一般贷款到后期的时候,银行也会要求你出具房屋保险证明,早做早好。

六、过户

交易过户会有产权公司作为第三方,来保证交易的安全性。在交易过户的前一天,最好再去看一下房子,以防房子发生什么变化,这也是你取消交易的最后机会。

过户之前,买家会收到一张结算单,除了首付以外,还有过户的手续费等杂项。另外,首付如果是20万,实际会多几万,包含了地产税、银行手续费、文件费、房屋评估费、房屋保险等费用。

为了安全,交易首付、过户的钱并不是直接发到卖家的账号,而是放在第三方托管账户escrow account里,产权公司确认资金到位之后,会让买卖双方签署产权转让合同,并且填写“过户信息表”,然后直接委托产权公司帮你在政府备案,解决房产税等问题。

买房是个大事,一定要充分了解,不要前期嫌麻烦,后期麻烦不断。最后祝大家都能买到自己心仪的好房子~

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