酥油花

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塔尔寺藏语称为“贡本噶丹贤巴林”,位于雪域东部宗曲(湟水)之滨湟中县鲁沙尔镇的宗喀莲花山中,是被佛教界誉为“第二佛陀、雪域高原智者庄严顶饰”的格鲁派宗师至尊宗喀巴大师的诞生圣地。因在诞生地奇迹般长出一棵每片叶上各显一尊狮子吼佛像的菩提树,又被赞誉为“第二蓝毗尼园”。是藏传佛教格鲁派六大著名丛林之一。自藏历土羊年(1379年)建圣塔,巳经历了六百多年的沧桑,藏历金猴年(1560年)建成的贤巴林(弥勒佛殿)也有四百多年的历史。之后逐步建成占地面积45万平方米的一组庞大的建筑群,以供奉菩提大银塔的大金瓦殿为中心,依山傍塬、藏汉结合,由大经堂、弥勒殿、九间殿、花寺、小金瓦寺、居巴扎仓、丁科扎仓、曼巴扎仓、大拉浪、大厨房、如意宝塔等9300余间组成。

塔尔寺四周群山环抱,状似八瓣莲花,视地观天,陵涧起伏,状如八辐法轮。祥光照射下的梵宇佛寺独具风格,宫殿式建筑与平顶式建筑依山就势,巧妙布局。巧夺天工的雄伟建筑,恢宏壮观,气势磅礴。体现了藏汉文化交汇融合的特色和风格。佛殿、经堂内供奉的佛、菩萨、阿罗汉、神像等不同质料的塑像造型精美。

塔尔寺除宏伟壮丽的建筑群外,还是一座文物精品荟萃,异彩纷呈的文化艺术宝库。寺院佛教文化包涵在藏族传统文化“大小五明”学科之内。其中内明学(佛学)是寺院文化的核心和精髓。浩如烟海的佛教经典是佛教文化的集大成者,塔尔寺佛教文化与藏区其他格鲁派寺刹一样,也是通过札仓这个学术机构来传播的。贡本贤巴林的四大札含(学院)可以说是雪域佛教文化学苑的一个缩影。念经、学经、讲经、辩经是学习研宄彿学的不同实践活动。各种佛事活动、法事仪轨是寺院佛教文化的另一种具体表现形式。寺院建筑及文化,包括木雕、砖离、石雕、尺度技艺;佛像、佛塔、佛经、僧装服饰的制作工艺;壁画、堆绣、酥油花“三绝”艺术皆属五明学的工巧明(工艺学)学科。医学和历算学也闻名遐迩。寺院佛教文化博大精深。古往今来,引起国内外一些专家学者学习研究的极大兴趣,研究成果斐然。

在雪域高原长大的我,还记得儿时从西宁坐车去塔尔寺的情景,那是还不知道什么是晒佛,什么是转经,就是跟着大人走走看看,每每看到虔诚的信徒将自己一年所有的收入投到寺院的时候,我吃惊的嘴巴都闭不上。每每听到妈妈说,塔尔寺信徒捐的的钱,其他人是不能碰的,谁谁家的孩子上次去塔尔寺偷偷拿了那里的钱,后来全家都遭遇了不幸,那时我对那个神奇的地方,充满了好奇。

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